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THE WORTH OF HUMANISTIC MANAGEMENT 作業代寫

    j. CARROLL SWART
    THE WORTH OF HUMANISTIC MANAGEMENT
    Some contemporary examples
    j. Carroll Swart is a faculty member in the College of
    Business Administration, Ball State University.
    Humanistic management,  often called job
    enrichment, is a new way to cope with old
    problems-motivation,  work  satisfaction,
    morale, and productivity. The author presents
    concrete situations in which new ideas have
    been tried among white-collar and blue-collar
    workers. Many companies-banks, insurance
    firms, manufacturing and industrial plants-
    have applied behaviorist theories. Removing
    time clocks and putting everyone on a salary
    are two measures adopted by several com-
    panies. Involving the workers in decision
    making is also becoming more widespread.
    One corporation, General Foods Corporation
    in Topeka, has based its total organizational
    system on humanistic management. To date,
    its operations have been highly successful, and
    the plant in many ways is a working labora-
    tory to test behaviorist theories.
    If you have a Mickey Mouse job and you put a good
    man in it, the odds are that you will wind up with a
    Mickey Mouse man.
    In 1922 Henry Ford I said, "The average
    worker wants a job in which he does not have
    to put much physical effort. Above all, he
    wants a job in which he does not have to
    think." Henry Ford was a giant in the auto
    industry's early years, and a number of his
    ideas are valid to this day. On the other hand,
    greater numbers of executives believe that this
    automotive pioneer's philosophy concerning
    worker attitudes is not valid in 1973. Many
    businessmen have modified their attitudes
    concerning the relative importance of em-
    ployee needs and values, and think that the
    behaviorists may have something when they
    talk about upgrading the work force and
    giving people a greater sense of responsibility.
    In short, to use the vernacular, in the past
    fifty years "we've come a long way, baby."
    This article is not intended as a discussion
    of humanistic management in the abstract.
    Rather, the author's purpose is to describe
    actual business situations where modifications
    were made in work content, employee respon-
    sibilities, and the work environment-with
    targets being higher motivation, morale, satis-
    faction, and productivity. Although job en-
    richment-essentially  job  enlargement-is
    proving to be an important means for achiev-
    ing these four goals, it is not the only way.
    Currently there is some controversy as to
    exactly what job enrichment encompasses.
    41
    JUNE, 1973
    J. CARROLL SWART
    42
    For the purposes of this paper the human
    element in organizations is discussed within a
    framework formally labeled humanistic man-
    agement. It is hoped that the presentation of
    concrete examples will be informative and
    helpful to businessmen and students actively
    interested in the topic. Obviously, theories in
    humanistic management will not solve every
    problem of motivation, work satisfaction, and
    productivity. The reader is asked tc~ answer
    for himself the question: What applications of
    humanistic management, if any, might be
    appropriate in the organization where I work?
    No pious value judgments are intended by the
    author.
    LOGICAL OR BIZARRE?
    The battery division factory of Matsushita
    Electric Company in Osaka, Japan's largest
    home appliance firm, contains "self-control
    rooms," where many a worker attempts to
    relieve himself of pent-up tensions. On ap-
    proaching the control area, a worker first
    observes a number of concave and convex
    mirrors. The immediate reaction is that he is
    likely to laugh at seeing his own distorted
    image. Next he enters a gymnasium equipped
    with punching bags and an assortment of
    exercise equipment, a place where he warms
    up for the main attraction.
    Then he moves to the central control
    room containing life-size dummies seated on
    knee-high platforms. The worker is provided
    with a bamboo stave (a club-like weapon)
    and, yelling and cursing, he clubs, swats, and
    slashes a life-size dummy to his heart's con-
    tent, keeping in mind the one (a boss,
    probably) who is the object of his blows.
    After his aggressive behavior is spent, he
    listens to one of a series of tape-recorded
    speeches by the board chairman himself,
    Matsushita, urging harmony and meaningful
    relationships. Should these activities not sat-
    isfy the employee, a counselor is standing by
    in an adjacent room.
    The innovative employer also might want
    to consider applying a lunar cycle theory to
    his work force. A Japanese firm, Ohmi Trans-
    port Company, takes into account each man's
    lunar cycle, the few days each month when,
    according to some physiologists, the em-
    ployee functions below par in a manner
    comparable to that of a woman during her
    menstrual period. To keep depressed workers
    clear of danger, Ohmi does not assign a man
    to a hazardous job during his lunar cycle. The
    firm claims a 30 percent drop in its accident
    rate since the program went into effect.
    Most readers probably feel that the two
    illustrations are ludicrous and far-fetched
    methods of attempting to improve employee
    satisfaction and productivity. I suggest that
    you may have to think open-mindedly about
    the two methods described. If, after a com-
    plete reading of this article, all other methods
    discussed seem bland and unworkable by
    comparison, then in aiming to improve the
    workers' lot at your organization you may
    want to try the Japanese style.
    WHITE-COLLAR APPLICATIONS
    A Banking Firm-The  New York Chemical
    Bank deliberately made a number of jobs
    more  complicated.  Targets  were  higher
    worker satisfaction and greater productivity.
    The bank previously had had a production
    line setup for a segment of its check sorting
    operations. One group of women took checks
    out of envelopes; another group encoded the
    checks;  another  put  entries  in  proper
    accounts; another stapled checks; and the last
    group enclosed checks in envelopes to be
    returned to customers.
    A decision was made to  abolish the
    production  line  concept.  Individual  em-
    ployees were given responsibilities for han-
    dling a series of tasks from start to finish for
    specified accounts. In effect, each woman
    knew what accounts she was working on. In
    turn, the account owners, in this case com-
    mercial banks, knew--or could find out--
    which bank employee was handling their
    BUSINESS HORIZONS
    The Worth of Humanistic Management
    business. The result, according to bank offi-
    cials, was that the women handled more total
    volume more efficiently than they had before.
    As a specific example, one can cite the
    experience of Mary, a female bank clerk:
    My job was to pull invoices and checks out of
    envelopes and stack them into three piles: one under
    $10, another between $20 and $25, and a third over
    $25. Then I'd pass the piles on to the next person.
    After two months I was so bored I would have quit
    within another month. 1
    After New York Chemical applied job
    enlargement concepts, Mary handled all the
    processing  for  twenty-two  corporate
    accounts, from crediting payments to return-
    ing unsigned checks. She said that handling
    her own accounts was a lot more interesting,
    and it gave her feelings of accomplishment. In
    Mary's department, in the four years prior to
    job enrichment, turnover averaged 59 percent
    a year, nearly double the bank's overall rate
    of 30.9 percent. After job changes were
    introduced in 1970, the turnover rate in
    Mary's department plummeted to 24 percent.
    According to an assistant vice-president, the
    impact of boredom on productivity had out-
    weighed the benefits of extreme speciali-
    zation.
    An Insurance Firm-Account  supervisors
    at Travelers Insurance Corporation at Hart-
    ford formerly spent about 35 percent of their
    time answering questions from subordinates
    and 45  percent doing production work-
    essentially handling clerical tasks when clerks
    ran into snags. In applying humanistic man-
    agement the clerks were delegated more au-
    thority as well as encouragement to solve
    more problems on their own. Some significant
    results: the two functions together consumed
    only 25 percent of the account supervisors'
    total time; the clerks were more satisfied with
    their jobs; and account supervisors were able
    to devote more time to planning and budget-
    ing.
    1. Roger Ricklefs, "Boredom Fighters Put Variety in
    Many Jobs," Wall Street Journal, August 21, 1972, p. 1.
    A  Brokerage Firm-At  Merrill Lynch,
    following  work  modifications,  seventeen
    clerks were able to do the work that a year
    earlier had required twenty-five employees. In
    addition, the worker error rate was reduced
    from 4 percent to 1 percent. Improvements
    were accomplished mainly by stimulating
    interest and making fuller use of potential.
    Previously, the clerical supervisor was spend-
    ing four hours a day on the phone answering
    questions from brokers. The processing of
    stock certificates was broken down into so
    many tiny tasks that only the clerical super-
    visor could handle a question about end
    results.
    After job tasks and relationships were
    reorganized, each clerk was assigned to handle
    all of the office work on a certificate and to
    take responsibility for it. In the processing of
    stock certificates the new requirement was
    that each clerk sign her name and phone
    extension on the paperwork. Also, the com-
    pany specified that clerks had to be able to
    handle incoming phone calls from brokers,
    and to convey to brokers the accurate stock
    certificate information. One effect was that
    the clerical supervisor's phone time with
    brokers was reduced by 70 percent. Accord-
    ing to company spokesmen, overall results
    were positive in terms of employee satis-
    faction and productivity.
    A Private Utility-Utilization  managers for
    the American Telephone and Telegraph Cor-
    poration,  at the urging of the personnel
    director for manpower, initiated job improve-
    ment programs at some 400 locations. At
    Indianapolis, female employees once com-
    piled telephone books by working on specific
    information pieces. After job enlargement
    concepts were applied, employees had the
    responsibility of putting together all the white
    pages, for example, of a phone book for a
    specific city in Indiana. If a city is large, that
    city's phone book would be assembled by a
    team.
    As another example within the AT&T
    System, the manager of the commercial divi-
    43
    JUNE, 1973
    J. CARROLL SWART
    44
    sion at Pacific Telephone in Los Angeles
    increased the service representatives' respon-
    sibilities and their authority to make deci-
    sions. The results were better customer ser-
    vice,  more  job  satisfaction,  and  higher
    productivity. Turnover was reduced from 62
    percent in 1969 to 48 percent in 1970. The
    company saved $3,800 in training costs for
    each service representative who was retained
    instead of replaced.
    A  Commercial  Airline-In  St.  Louis,
    American Airlines improved the commitment
    and morale of twenty of its agents who
    handle flight boarding. Two agents had been
    assigned to each flight, under the direction of
    a supervisor. In redesigning the relationships
    of responsibility and authority, one of the
    agents was designated as flight coordinator
    and given the responsibility for getting the
    flight off the ground. It was necessary for him
    to clear only the most unusual decisions.
    One flight coordinator delayed a takeoff
    to accommodate twenty passengers from a
    competing airline that had canceled its flight.
    The coordinator judged that the additional
    revenues would justify the delay.
    A Manufacturing Firm--In  Washington, W.
    Va., the Marbon division of Borg-Warner
    Corporation applied job enrichment ideas to
    the sales force. In 1972 the plastic products
    division assigned its more productive salesmen
    to plan the national sales meeting, develop a
    training program, and even develop marketing
    plans for a given product.
    The division also was considering reducing
    each salesman's paperwork and expanding his
    authority to arrange prices. The manager of
    markets for the division was trying to make
    the sales job rewarding enough in its own
    right so that people would look at it as a
    career rather than as a stepping-stone.
    An Industrial Firm--Humanistic  manage-
    ment also is incorporated in management
    training programs. At General Electric, for
    example, about 2,000 foremen and super-
    visors  have  participated  in  role  playing
    sessions. In the GE program, managers are
    encouraged to use an alternate way in dealing
    with workers.
    A foreman playing the role of a worker
    may act out a situation in which a worker is
    called in by his superior to discuss a prob-
    lem-anything from absenteeism to poor work
    habits. The action is videotaped and shown to
    supervisors, who engage in lively discussions
    and critical analyses concerning the particular
    role playing exercise. According to a GE
    personnel research executive, most men who
    have gone through the sessions go away with
    the feeling that they can be more effective in
    their jobs if they put aside the image of a
    tough guy.
    In one GE electronic components plant, a
    group of supervisors went through the train-
    ing. Ten weeks later, the workers they were
    supervising were performing at a level 20
    percent higher in production efficiency. AGE
    research officer said, "We're not trying to
    change a foreman's behavior with a lot of
    theory. We're saying that there is more to his
    job than just clobbering people when they get
    out of line, which is the way a shop has
    traditionally been run. ''2
    A  Footwear Manufacturer--The R. G.
    Barry Corporation, a shoe manufacturer in
    Columbus, Ohio, has been attempting to
    measure the human element through human
    resource accounting. Working with researchers
    from the University of Michigan, the firm is
    one of a handful of enterprises trying to
    assess, in an unconventional way, how effec-
    tively their investments in human resources
    are being used.
    Barry has incorporated human resource
    measures in its past three annual reports to
    stockholders, side by side with conventional
    accounting measures. The firm calculates the
    2. "Management Itself Holds the Key,"  Business Week
    (September 9, 1972), p. 146.
    BUSINESS HORIZONS
    The Worth of Humanistic Management
    R. G. Barry Corporation Balance Sheet, 1971
    A sse ts
    Total current assets
    Net property, plant and equipment
    Excess of purchase price
    over net assets acquired
    Net investments in human resources
    Other assets
    Liabilities and Stockholders Equity
    Total current liabilities
    Long-term debt, excluding current installments
    Deferred compensation
    Deferred federal income taxes based upon full
    tax deduction for human resource costs
    Stockholders equity
    Capital stock
    Additional capital in excess of par value
    Retained earnings
    Financial
    Human resources
    Total stockholders equity
    SOURCE:  Business Week  (September 9, 1972), p. 137.
    investment it makes in hiring and training new
    managers and in developing the abilities of
    existing  managers. Then it amortizes this
    investment  over  appropriate  periods.  The
    Barry Corporation's innovative format is illus-
    trated in the accompanying table.
    Robert N. Anthony, a faculty member in
    the Harvard Business School, is of the opinion
    that human resource measures may be ex-
    tremely important for service and professional
    businesses such as accounting and law firms,
    consultants,  and medical  clinics. In these
    types of enterprises, according to Anthony,
    return on investment makes no sense, either
    as a basis for pricing or as a method of
    measuring performance.  "The principal re-
    source is not the amount of capital involved
    but rather the skill of the professionals whom
    the firm has hired, trained, organized, and
    motivated. ''3
    3. "A Better Basis for Better Decisions,"  Business Week
    (September 9, 1972), p. 139.
    Conventional and  Conventional
    Human Resources  Only
    $12,810,346  $12,810,346
    3,343,379  3,343,379
    1,291,079  1,291,079
    1,561,264
    209,419  209,419
    $19,215,487  $17,654,223
    3,060,576  3,060,576
    5,095,000  5,095,000
    95,252  95,252
    780,632
    1,209,301  1,209,301
    5,645,224  5,645,224
    2,548,870  2,548,870
    780,632
    10,184,027  9,403,395
    $19,215,48 7  $17,654,223
    45
    Possibly many readers assess human re-
    source accounting as an ambiguous and frag-
    mented system that will never go beyond the
    experimental stage. Such an assessment may
    be correct. On the other hand, the Barry
    corporation's  conventional and human re-
    source balance sheet is indicative of that
    firm's sensitivity to the human element, and
    of its open-minded approach to ways in which
    it might be measured.
    APPLICATIONS IN THE FACTORY
    Salary and Time Clocks
    For most  employees there is more status
    associated  with  salary than wages.  Salary
    compensation also suggests more regularity in
    the paychecks received, and, in turn, pro-
    motes feelings of security. Companies might
    anticipate more contract talks that include
    JUNE, 1973
    J. CARROLL SWART
    "When an inventory buildup occurred in 1971, the majority of workers suggested that the firm
    go temporarily on a three-week month to slow production without laying anyone off."
    46
    the salary demand. This desire will be initi-
    ated by more unions in the 1970s, including
    the United Auto Workers.
    In France, Renault has agreed to give
    monthly pay status to workers in 1973.
    Following Renault's lead, the Patronat, the
    French employers association, has reached an
    agreement with unions that will put almost all
    French industrial workers in the status of
    monthly personnel by 1975. President Pompi-
    dou suggested that the change would go a
    long way toward ending the working class
    stigma for those now paid on an hourly basis.
    Closely allied to the salary issue are
    company policies regarding the use of time
    clocks. Although this is atypical, some firms
    have removed time clocks. In doing so, a
    number of companies retained the wage form
    of compensation, while others initiated salary
    pay. A few firms that have done away with
    the time clocks are Coming Glass, Texas
    Instruments,  Alcan Aluminum, Donnelly
    Mirrors, Motorola, Eaton Yale & Towne, and
    R. G. Barry. According to a Motorola Corpo-
    ration spokesman, "Taking out the time
    clocks was a sign we wanted to treat our
    employees like adults, not control them like
    children or mechanical devices. ''4 Frederick
    Herzberg, the contemporary father of job
    enrichment, says:
    How motivated would you be if your job con-
    sisted of tightening five bolts with a torque wrench a
    thousand times a day, and if, in addition, mechanical
    devices called time clocks and whistles told you when
    to work, when to eat, when to stretch your legs and
    when to use the bathroom, s
    Herzberg's contention is that most ptro-
    duction jobs provide so little satisfaction that
    they should be automated out of existence.
    4. James MacGregor, "The Honor System,"  Wall Street
    Journal,  May 22, 1970, p. 1.
    5. MacGregor, "The Honor System."
    Or, where such a transformation is not eco-
    nomically feasible, an honor system that
    eliminates time clocks helps improve worker
    motivation and satisfaction.
    Redesigning Jobs and Building Teamwork
    Corning Glass--The  plant at Medfield, Mass.
    employs about 100 people. In 1967, with
    absenteeism and turnover running at high
    rates, the company decided to make some
    major changes. Privileged parking spots for
    executives were removed, jobs were re-
    designed to make them more interesting and
    challenging, and employees were given a
    greater voice in setting and meeting their own
    work  schedules.  Increased responsibilities
    enabled the plant to operate with two fewer
    managers.
    Today, employees meet monthly with
    department heads to discuss production goals,
    and twice a month teams of employees confer
    with the plant manager in sessions officially
    called "coffee with the boss." The workers
    participate in decision making. When an in-
    ventory buildup occurred in 1971, the major-
    ity of workers suggested that the firm go
    temporarily on a three-week month to slow
    production without laying anyone off. After
    consideration, the plant manager agreed with
    the proposal.
    Donnelly Mirrors--The  firm at Holland,
    Mich. had sales of $14 million in 1969, and
    has raised its profits roughly 20 percent since
    1952. A few years ago the Donnelly Corpo-
    ration removed its time clocks, put everyone
    on salary, and turned a large number of
    shop-floor decisions over to its employees.
    Today, about 500 workers are assigned to
    task-oriented teams under foremen, who in
    BUSINESS HORIZONS
    The Worth of Humanistic Management
    turn are members of a team of foremen.
    Workers are paid on a salary basis with a
    bonus tied to production. Workers can decide
    how much of a salary increase they will
    receive; however, they must find ways to pay
    for it through higher productivity, cost re-
    duction, and elimination of needless jobs.
    Quality also is a factor in the bonus calcula-
    tion.
    Alcan Aluminum-At  the rolling mill in
    Oswego, N.Y., automation started plant offi-
    cials to thinking about ways to improve
    morale. At a $90 million installation having a
    work force exceeding 600 people, some prob-
    lems were especially costly. When a bored or
    disgruntled worker pulled a wrong lever some-
    where along the 600-foot-long hot rolling
    mill, often the whole mill had to stop for
    repairs.
    The plant removed time clocks and took
    steps to permit employees to determine their
    own break and lunch times. Job rotation also
    was introduced. With appropriate training,
    workers began relieving each other until most
    men knew one or two other jobs in addition
    to their own. For example, a cutting ~nachine
    operator also learns to drive a forklift truck,
    and the forklift truck driver becomes com-
    petent in running an overhead crane. When a
    man becomes eligible for a better job, it is
    possible that he already has done it. In effect,
    the versatile person is in a better position to
    know if he wants a particular job on a
    permanent basis. Because some employees can
    do several jobs, total employment at Oswego
    is as much as 100 men fewer than under
    standard union job definitions (there is no
    union at Alcan).
    The company guarantees full pay for time
    off for urgent business-with one day's notice.
    There is also full salary for up to twenty-six
    weeks to an employee idled by layoff; how-
    ever, the plant has not had a layoff since it
    was built in 1963. On days when no pro-
    duction is scheduled, workers pull out brooms
    or paint brushes for plant cleaning.
    Alcan is the only nonunionized plant in
    the Oswego area despite a pay scale slightly
    lower than the industry average. In 1970
    absenteeism was running at about 2.5 percent,
    compared with an industry average of about
    10  percent. At Alcan, according to one
    worker, it is a lot easier getting up in the
    morning to go to work.
    TRW Corporation-The  Cleveland-based
    firm has used a heavy dose of job enrichment
    with both salaried and hourly workers in
    attempting to  create a climate in which
    workers can share their ideas and get them
    through the system. According to a top
    executive at TRW, "We're convinced that in
    terms of productivity, the man who is most
    productive is the one who has a real piece of
    the action. He's in a job where he has control
    and influence, and one where he is measured
    on results.'6
    In 1972, in one of its manufacturing
    plants TRW created the semiautonomous
    work team. The workers were given the
    responsibility of assembling a product as a
    team rather than separately performing assem-
    bly line tasks. Once given the new assignment,
    team members were allowed to schedule their
    own time as long as they did the job.
    One result was the elimination of different
    shifts for a given job, since it made no sense
    to work as a team unless its members worked
    at the same time. Hours of work were
    staggered when necessary to fit personal
    needs, and the firm started to see team
    members take on tasks formerly regarded as
    the company's responsibility. Older, more
    experienced  employees  were  voluntarily
    spending time in training younger team mem-
    bers. According to TRW, productivity went
    up 15 percent.
    General Electric--By  forming work teams
    GE appears to be broadening its efforts to
    make jobs more interesting. The aim is to
    6. Business Week  (September 9, 1972), p. 143.
    47
    JUNE, 1973
    J. CARROLL SWART
    48
    create a setting in which each member of a
    team can see the relationship between what
    he does and what has to be done. Hopefully, a
    worker will see himself as part of a small
    system which, in turn, is an integral part of a
    larger  system. According to GE, what is
    important is to identify a task and then to
    assign a group of five to fifteen people to
    handle it. The key is to give the group as
    much responsibility as possible.
    In a fabricating plant, twelve welders were
    given responsibility for planning and sched-
    uling their work load. They determined, for
    example, how much time it would take to
    meet specifications on any items requiring
    special welding techniques, a job formerly
    done by a methods and standards engineer.
    The welders were experienced enough to
    decide which one would perform a specific
    job within what time frame. The company's
    interpretation is that the responsibility meant
    that the men had a bigger say in how they did
    their jobs. They became more committed to
    the work as team members.
    What about the engineers? They were
    freed to work on new product models while
    the welders decided how the daily work was
    going to be done. Overall, both the efficiency
    and the quality of work improved.
    A TOTAL SYSTEM
    With few exceptions, humanistic management
    has  been  applied  on  a piecemeal basis.
    Examples cited in this article depict behav-
    ioral ideas applied mainly to departments,
    offices, and particular jobs. At one firm in
    particular, however, behavioral concepts have
    been applied over a total system. Because of
    its uniqueness, plus the fact that initial results
    are available, this section of the article is
    devoted exclusively to a discussion of one
    company's experiences.
    In  1968,  General  Foods  Corporation
    decided to build a new pet food plant in
    Topeka. In the overall design, the company
    desired to incorporate and apply knowledge
    developed by the behavioral sciences. A num-
    ber of key managers were selected. For more
    than two years the appointed group met with
    behavioral science experts and visited indus-
    trial plants that were experimenting with
    innovative organizational  methods. Recom-
    mendations of this management group were
    instrumental  in the overall design of the
    Topeka plant that began operating in January
    of 1971. Key features are discussed below.
    Autonomous  Work Groups-The  total
    work force of approximately seventy em-
    ployees is organized into six teams. On any
    one shift, three teams are at work, each
    covering an entire phase of the plant's opera-
    tion: processing from the raw material to the
    end product, packaging and shipping, and
    office work. A team is comprised of from
    seven to fourteen members (operators) and a
    team leader. Assignments of individuals to
    sets of tasks are subject to team consensus.
    Although at any given time one employee has
    primary responsibility for a set of tasks within
    the team's jurisdiction, some tasks can be
    shared by several operators. In addition, tasks
    can be redefined by the team in light of
    individual interests and capabilities.
    Other issues that fall within the scope of
    team recommendation  or decision making
    include: temporarily redistributing tasks to
    coyer for absent workers, coping with manu-
    facturing problems that occur within or be-
    tween the teams' areas of responsibilities,
    selecting team workers to serve on plantwide
    committees  or  task forces, screening and
    selecting employees to replace departing oper-
    ators, and counseling those who do not meet
    team standards.
    THE WORTH OF HUMANISTIC MANAGEMENT 作業代寫
    Integrated Support Functions-Most  staff
    units are eliminated. Activities typically per-
    formed by quality control, maintenance, cus-
    todial, industrial engineering, and personnel
    units  are built  into  an  operating team's
    responsibilities. Complicated electrical main-
    tenance is one exception. Team members
    maintain the equipment, "housekeep" their
    BUSINESS HORIZONS
    The Worth of Humanistic Management
    "In many ways, the Topeka plant is a working laboratory for testing behavioral theories
    about motivation, morale, worker satisfaction, and productivity."
    areas, perform quality tests and ensure quality
    standards, and screen job applicants.
    Challenging Job Assignments-Every  set of
    THE WORTH OF HUMANISTIC MANAGEMENT 作業代寫
    tasks is designed to include functions that
    require definite responsibilities and special-
    ized abilities. The integrated support func-
    tions provide an important source of job
    enrichment. Also, plant technology is de-
    signed to eliminate dull jobs as much as
    possible. But some nonchallenging yet basic
    tasks still must be compensated for. For
    example, the forklift truck operation is not
    technically challenging. Therefore, the team
    member responsible for it is assigned other,
    more mentally demanding tasks,  such as
    planning warehouse space utilization and ship-
    ping activities.
    Job Mobility and Rewards for Learning--
    Because all sets of jobs are designed to be
    equally challenging, although each set com-
    prises unique skill demands, it is possible to
    have a single job classification for all opera-
    tors. Increases in pay are geared to an
    operator's  mastery of an increasing pro-
    portion of jobs, first in the team and then in
    the total plant.
    Thus, team members are paid for learning
    more aspects of the total manufacturing
    system. Since there are no limits on the
    number of workers that can qualify for higher
    pay brackets, operators are encouraged to
    teach each other. The old plant, in contrast,
    featured numerous job classifications, with
    pay increases based on progress up the classifi-
    cation hierarchy.
    Facilitative Leadership--Team  leaders are
    THE WORTH OF HUMANISTIC MANAGEMENT 作業代寫
    selected from foremen and are largely respon-
    sible for team development and group deci-
    sion making. This contrasts with the old
    plant's use of supervisors to plan, direct, and
    control subordinates' work. The company
    believes that in time the teams might be
    self-directed. If so, the formal team leader
    position might not be required.
    Self-Government-The  management group
    that developed the basic organization plan
    before the plant was manned refrained from
    formulating any plant rules in advance. The
    firm is committed to letting these rules evolve
    from collective experience.
    Congruent Physical and Social Context-
    Differential  status  symbols  characterizing
    traditional work organizations are minimized
    in the new plant. There is a single entrance for
    both the office and plant, an open parking
    lot, and a common decor throughout the
    reception area, locker rooms, cafeteria, and
    offices.
    In many ways, the Topeka plant is a
    working laboratory for testing behavioral
    theories about motivation, morale, worker
    satisfaction, and productivity. What were
    initial results after the first eighteen months
    of operations? Using standard data, industrial
    engineers originally estimated that 110 em-
    ployees would be needed to man the plant;
    the actual average work force employed at
    Topeka, however, was 70. The safety record
    was one of the best in the company. Turnover
    was far below average. The plant's fixed
    overhead rate was 33 percent lower than in
    the old plant.
    Reductions  in  variable  manufacturing
    costs for example, an absenteeism rate 9
    percent below the industry norm and 92
    percent  fewer quality rejects resulted in
    annual savings of $600,000. Operators, man-
    49
    JUNE, 1973
    j. CARROLL SWART
    50
    agers, and team leaders became more involved
    in their work and derived higher satisfaction
    from it. ~ One report comments as follows:
    A  plant where work  teams perform  without
    supervisors,  where  many  decisions are based  on
    employee consensus, and where most of the staff
    functions are assigned to line operators--in what
    future organization would such a phenomenon exist?
    Probably in most, because such radical innovations
    are part of the emerging answer to alienation in the
    workplace. 8
    The purpose of this article is to
    discuss contemporary examples of
    humanistic management. I shall repeat a
    statement  contained in  the  introductory
    words of this article: "The reader is asked to
    answer for himself the question: What appli-
    cations of humanistic management, if any,
    might be appropriate in the organization
    where I work?"
    THE WORTH OF HUMANISTIC MANAGEMENT 作業代寫
    Among many forms we observe that man-
    7. Richard E. Walton, "How to Counter Alienation in the
    Plant,"  Harvard Business Review,  L (November-December,
    1972), pp. 70-81; also see  Business Week  (September 9,
    1972), pp. 143-46.
    8. Harvard Business Review,  L (November-December,
    1972), p. 70.
    agement is increasingly aware of and sensitive
    to issues of worker motivation and satis-
    faction. There is also a keen interest in
    studying intricacies of human behavior in the
    work force. 9 In the immediate future, with
    the availability of more information, un-
    doubtedly we shall read that a number of
    humanistic work designs survived the test of
    time. In all likelihood, we shall also read that
    many designs that proved to be costly and
    unworkable were abolished.
    What is an important purpose of human-
    istic management? In the words of Frederick
    Herzberg,  "Managers must get more men
    going home to their wives saying, 'Honey, do
    you know what I did today?' instead of
    'Honey, do you know what they did to me
    today?' -1 o
    9. A number of interesting developments aimed at
    building worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity are
    occurring (and also being planned) at the Saab and Volvo
    auto plants in Sweden. By 1975, with forthcoming data, a
    more accurate assessment of the Swedish innovations will be
    possible. For information concerning this matter, see, for
    example:  Harvard Business Review,  L (November-December,
    1972), pp. 80-81; "Sweden Tests a New Assembly-Line
    Concept,"  Business Week  (March 4, 1972), p. 70.
    10.  Time  (November 9, 1970), p. 74.
    0000000003000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001300000000000000000
    The principal difference between a butcher knife and a scalpel lies not in
    their physical characteristics but in their purpose and in the degree of skill
    required for their proper use. The computer, like the scalpel, calls for new
    and finer skills on the part of its user. In the industrial environment, this
    user is not the programmer or computer system specialist, but the business
    manager. The skill required on his part consists primarily in a better,
    deeper understanding of the operation into which the computer is to be
    introduced. To acquire the desired degree of understanding, the manager
    must be trained, or must train himself, to abstract certain aspects of his
    operation from other, traditionally better understood characteristics such
    as the physical or human side of the business.
    -Joseph Orlicky
    THE WORTH OF HUMANISTIC MANAGEMENT 作業代寫
    The Successful Computer System
    O0000OOOOOO00000OOOOOOO0000OOOOO0000OOOOOO000000000OOOOOOOOOOODOOOOOO00OOOO
    BUSINESS HORIZONS
     

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