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Marketing, Vol代寫.customers

    I
    has led to increasing ethical scrutiny of marketing activities. The nature of the
    product 1 appears central to many criticisms directed at marketing. There is
    mounting pressure on organisations to demonstrate ethical credentials. Philip
    Kotler highlighted the importance of taking into account a product’s impact on
    consumers’ long-term welfare. This paper extends Kotler’s (1972) classification
    of products matrix by including ethical consideration of consumers’ needs and
    wants. The resulting 3D matrix provides a tool for considering products from
    an ethical perspective. It also offers organisations and marketers a means of
    analysing product concepts at an early stage and of identifying directions in which
    an existing product for which there is a questionable need can be developed to
    strengthen its justification.
    Keywords Products, Classification, Ethics, Needs and wants
    *Correspondence details and a biography for the author are located at the end of the article.
    1 The term “product” is used here to encapsulate the spectrum of offerings on the
    product to service continuum.
    product can be justified in relation to consumers’ needs and wants.
    With increasing pressures on both financial and physical resources
    among producers, retailers and consumers, only the fittest products are likely
    to survive. Products for which there is little necessity are likely to be squeezed
    out of the market first as consumers re-evaluate their spending priorities.
    The 3D product matrix provides a means of analysing product concepts at
    an early stage and also of identifying directions in which an existing product
    for which there is a questionable need can be developed to strengthen its
    justification.
    This paper extends the debate about how ethical issues are considered
    in marketing. It advocates a more proactive approach to ethical marketing,
    in contrast to the more typically reactive responses to ethical criticisms of
    marketing. The 3D product matrix provides a tool that may be used during
    the new product development process and to review existing products,
    thereby offering a range of potential business benefits.
    Classifications of products
    Product classification is considered important because it enables potential
    competition to be identified, provides a framework for comparing and
    evaluating marketing strategies and offers a starting point for developing
    strategies for new products (Assael 1974). A variety of product typologies
    have been developed, as will now briefly be reviewed.
    Copeland (1924) categorised products into: convenience, shopping
    and speciality goods, based on consumers’ buying behaviour. As an example
    of a “generalised product classification”, Copeland’s typology provides a
    positioning typology for developing marketing strategies (Assael 1974).
    Aspinwall (1962) developed the Characteristics of Goods Theory, which
    was extended by Miracle (1965) to apply it to all the elements of the marketing
    mix, rather than just distribution and promotion. Products were grouped
    according to their profile across the following nine characteristics: (i) unit
    value; (ii) significance of each individual purchase to the consumer; (iii) time
    and effort spent purchasing by consumers; (iv) rate of technological change
    (including fashion changes); (v) technical complexity; (vi) consumer need for
    service (before, during and after the sale); (vii) frequency of purchase; (viii)
    rapidity of consumption; (ix) extent of usage (number and variety of consumers
    and variety of ways in which the product provides utility) (Miracle 1965, p.
    20). For example, products assessed as being very low on characteristics (i) to
    (vi) and very high on characteristics (vii) to (ix) were deemed to include sweets,
    cigarettes, razor blades and soft drinks. At the other end of the spectrum,
    products classified as being very high on characteristics (i) to (vi) and very
    low on characteristics (vii) to (ix) included electronic office equipment and
    specialised machine tools. The resulting product groups (based on common
    profiles of whether products were very low, low, medium, high or very high
    for each of the nine characteristics) were used to identify common product,
    marketing channel, promotion and pricing policies.
    Crawford (1985) proposed a positioning typology consisting of two
    broad categories: (i) attributes (features and benefits) and (ii) ‘surrogates’
    (substitutes for features and benefits). Surrogates involve saying something
    The Marketing Review, 2009, Vol. 9, No. 2 128
    Harris Product classification: an ethical perspective
    about a product that allows consumers to infer relevant value without
    its being explicitly stated, the advantage being that consumers can form
    associations that might not be able to be claimed directly for the product.
    In contrast to the aforementioned typologies that focus on product
    positioning and marketing strategy, Kotler’s (1972) classification incorporated
    an ethical dimension alongside a market orientation. He classified products
    along two dimensions: immediate satisfaction and long-run consumer
    welfare, as shown in Figure 1. The four resulting classes of product were: (i)
    deficient products, which offered neither immediate satisfaction nor long-
    run consumer welfare (for example, smokeless cigarettes with an unpleasant
    smell and taste); (ii) pleasing products, which provided immediate satisfaction
    but had a detrimental impact on consumers in the long-run (for example,
    sweets); (iii) salutary products, which were worthy in the long-run but were
    less attractive with regard to immediate satisfaction (for example washable
    nappies); and (iv) desirable products, which offered the advantageous
    combination of high immediate satisfaction and high long-run consumer
    welfare (for example, fairly traded bananas).
    Desirable products are clearly the ideal, but are difficult to create. Most
    products fall into the category of pleasing products, because they typically
    appeal to consumers, but may have negative effects on the long-run welfare
    of consumers and/or the environment in some way. Deficient products are
    the least likely to succeed and salutary products may be hard to sell.
    However, assessing the long-run impact of some products can be
    difficult. In addition, people “tend to discount the impact of events that
    occur in the future” (Jones 1991, p. 376). The two dimensions of immediate
    satisfaction and long-run consumer welfare may be viewed as continuums.
    Feldman (1971, p. 55) noted: “Almost all products have some impact on
    the environmental system, if not at the point of production, as with food
    or electric power, then at the point of consumption or disposal”. So, while
    salutary and desirable products may be considered less damaging in the
    long-run compared with other offerings, they are unlikely to be completely
    harmless. For example, washable nappies contribute less to landfill waste
    than disposable nappies, but result in higher levels of energy use and
    detergents in waste water. Fairly traded bananas provide better long-term
    welfare than non-fairly traded ones by paying producers a fair price and
    giving consumers the satisfaction of making a socially responsible purchase,
    but consumers are being increasingly encouraged to purchase food locally in
    preference to air freighted food that adds to high carbon emissions. Kotler
    (1972) advocated enhancing the appeal of salutary products and including
    salutary characteristics in pleasing products. While organisations should still
    endeavour to provide desirable products, in view of the difficulties involved
    129
    Figure 1 Kotler’s classification of products (Source: Kotler 1972, p.
    56)
    Long-run High Salutary products Desirable products
    consumer welfare Low Deficient products Pleasing products
    Low High
    The Marketing Review, 2009, Vol. 9, No. 2
    in developing fully desirable products, Kotler’s suggestions reflect the reality
    of the majority of products on the market.
    Pleasing products can be especially contentious, because they appeal
    strongly to some consumers but they can elicit equally strong condemnation
    from other consumers as a result of their negative impact on consumer,
    social or environmental welfare (for example, tobacco products, alcohol,
    gambling, guns, pornography and 4x4 vehicles). Such products raise ethical
    issues because the freedom of individuals to choose conflicts with the
    interests of wider society or the environment. Whilst it is the misuse of such
    products that is typically problematic, tobacco products are an exception in
    being harmful when used as intended. However, they are difficult to ban
    completely owing to their widespread use and smokers’ addiction to them.
    Instead, many governments are discouraging tobacco use through curbing
    smoking in an increasing number of public places and prohibiting tobacco
    promotion. The marketing of controversial products does the marketing
    profession’s reputation little favour.
    Questioning the satisfaction of consumers’ needs/wants
    Whilst satisfying consumers’ needs and/or wants is a cornerstone of many
    definitions of marketing (see, for example, Kotler et al. 2005 and Jobber
    2003), the growing body of literature on consumerism warrants greater
    questioning of the veracity of consumers’ needs and wants and marketing’s
    role in satisfying them. Marketing is often blamed for the ills of the consumer
    society and hedonistic lifestyles (O’Shaughnessy and O’Shaughnessy 2002). In
    particular, O’Shaughnessy and O’Shaughnessy (2002) noted that marketing is
    accused of supplanting higher values, undermining other cultures, replacing
    seeking meaning with unremitting consumption in the pursuit of self-
    expression and status, inundating the environment with messages coercing
    people into consuming and promoting gratuitously disposable attitudes
    towards products.
    O’Shaughnessy and O’Shaughnessy (2002) argued that power-seeking
    is a universal animal trait and people through the ages have sought to amass
    material possessions, but increasing affluence has enabled more people to
    express their identity, social standing and values through the products they
    purchase. However, Abela (2006) noted that consumerism and marketing
    have expanded together over a 300 year period. Abela (2006, p.11) defined
    consumerism as “excessive attachment to material possessions ... which
    goes beyond those possessions’ ability to provide satisfaction commensurate
    with the investments (both economic and psychological) made in them”.
    Abela (2006) also observed that research indicated that materialism (used
    interchangeably with consumerism by Abela) is associated with lower levels
    of personal well-being (see for example, Csikszentmihalyi 2000). Speculation
    about why this might be so has generated several possible explanations
    (Abela 2006). One suggestion is that consumers have prioritised less
    important needs over more important ones (Ahuvia and Wong 2002).
    Another suggestion is that materialism, by its individualistic nature, creates
    a tension with collective values such as family and religion (Burroughs and
    Rindfleisch 2002). Another possible explanation is that the dissociation of
    130
    Harris Product classification: an ethical perspective
    consumers from the production and consequences of consumption results
    in disengagement and dissatisfaction (Borgmann 2000).
    The distinction between needs and wants appears to be at the centre
    of such debates about marketing and consumerism. O’Shaughnessy and
    O’Shaughnessy (2002, p. 529) argued:
    While marketing facilitates the accumulation of goods and status emanating
    from their display, the basic motive is already there: people may not need
    many possessions but want them all the same. Without marketing, society
    would appear less materialistic but, without the opportunity to choose,
    there would be no merit in virtue.
    In effect their argument was that marketing, by tempting people to consume,
    also gives people the opportunity to be virtuous by resisting this temptation.
    O’Shaughnessy and O’Shaughnessy contended further that marketing does
    not invent wants but rather activates latent wants. They made a case that
    John Stuart Mill’s principle (that individuals should be free to act as they
    wish as long as their actions are entirely “self-regarding” and do not harm
    others) could be used to argue that people should be free to spend their
    money as they choose and not be subject to the values of others, although
    Mill himself never sanctioned the application of his principle. However,
    Mill’s stipulation that an individual’s actions should not harm others could
    instead be used to argue against unfettered freedom to consume, given
    urgent indications that the Earth can no longer support the harmful effects
    of unbounded consumption (see, for example, The Stern Review 2006 and
    the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fourth Assessment Report
    2007).
    There are a variety of marketed products that raise questions about
    whether consumers really have a need for them, latent or otherwise.
    Consider, for example, a battery-powered revolving tie rack. Do such products
    indicate that the real needs of a sizable proportion of consumers have been
    met to the extent that they are prepared to consider outlandish solutions
    to trivial problems? Might they also provide support for critics’ arguments
    that marketing tries “to get people to want what they don’t need” (Star
    1989, p. 148)? Even if debatably superfluous products do not have a clearly
    detrimental impact on long-run consumer welfare, concern is growing about
    the potentially unhealthy effects of consumer affluence (see for example
    James 2007).
    In contrast, some consumers may not have the financial resources to
    buy good quality products, so have to settle for inferior ones which may
    be harmful in some way. From a “market” perspective it could be argued
    that consumers who are unable to pay for safer products should not be
    forced either by businesses or government to purchase products with safety
    levels they do not want or are unwilling (or unable) to pay for (Velasquez
    1998). If the price of a safe product (a “desirable” product in Kotler’s matrix)
    exceeds some people’s ability buy it, does that justify the marketing of an
    alternative product to meet their needs that is damaging to long-term
    social and environment welfare? Whilst many societies value free choice,
    a focus on cost can encourage a race to the bottom, as many consumers,
    regardless of their income, like a bargain. One way of addressing this issue is
    131
    The Marketing Review, 2009, Vol. 9, No. 2
    by considering whether there is a genuine need for a particular product, as
    will next be explored.
    A 3D product matrix
    Whereas previous product typologies have addressed how best to market a
    product, this paper asks whether a product ought be marketed. In a world
    where the mantra “Reduce, reuse, recycle” is increasingly heard, the question
    can no longer be evaded. Indeed Ghoshal (2005) argued that the amoral
    nature of much management theory is a cause for concern, which has
    encouraged management students to excuse themselves from feeling any
    moral responsibility.
    Adopting an ethical perspective, an extension to Kotler’s (1972) product
    matrix is proposed through the inclusion of a third dimension: a needs-
    wants continuum that classifies products as addressing essential, enriching
    or unnecessary needs/wants. Kotler’s “long-run consumer welfare” axis is
    explicitly broadened out to “social and environmental welfare”. This 3D
    product matrix is shown in Figure 2. The arrows indicate directions in which
    marketers might try to make products more desirable.
    Kotler’s notion of “long-term consumer welfare” and this paper’s broader
    “social and environmental welfare” both encapsulate a consequentialist ethical
    perspective in that they ask marketers to consider a product’s consequences.
    The added needs-wants dimension asks marketers to consider the virtues of
    a product.
    Obviously, the placement of products into categories on the needs/
    wants dimension involves value judgements to some extent; what enriches
    one person’s life may be unnecessary to another and vice versa. How
    then can marketers determine whether a product should be classified as
    132
    Figure 2 3D product matrix (Adapted from Kolter 1972, p. 56)
    unnecessary
    enriching
    essential
    Low
    Low
    High
    High
    Desirable
    Needs/
    wants
    Immediate
    satisfaction
    Social and
    environmental
    welfare
    Harris Product classification: an ethical perspective
    essential, enriching or unnecessary? Maslow’s (1968) hierarchy of needs
    provides a starting point for distinguishing between essential and enriching
    products, albeit as Csikszentmihalyi (2000) noted, products often address a
    combination of higher and lower order needs. Maslow identified five needs:
    (i) physiological (e.g. food, shelter and clothing); (ii) safety; (iii) love and
    belonging; (iv) self-esteem; and (v) self-actualisation. Needs (i) and (ii) may
    be classified as essential and (iv) and (v) as enriching. Need (iii) is harder
    to classify and the purchasing of products to satisfy the needs of love and
    belonging is open to question and certainly to accusations of manipulation
    when harnessed by marketing. A process of laddering (Gutman 1982), may
    be used to help identify the need(s) or end(s) served by a product, by asking
    incrementally what purpose a product serves.
    Next marketers could ask whether the identified need(s) may be met
    in some other way, either within the same product category or though an
    alternative means. If it can, then the product could be compared against
    the alternative product/means in terms of the virtues they embody. As a
    philosophical ethical framework the concept of virtue concerns what kind
    of person someone should be or become (their moral character). The Greek
    philosopher Aristotle emphasised the importance of having the right amount
    of virtue and avoiding the vices of being either excessive or deficient in
    any virtue. So products could be viewed in terms of the type of virtue and
    level of virtue (ranging from excessive to deficient) they afford people. For
    example, a fast food outlet might satisfy the physiological need for food, but
    might be deficient in the virtue of nutrition. If a more nutritious (virtuous)
    alternative were available, the fast food outlet could be deemed unnecessary.
    Other factors such as convenience and taste preferences also play a role in
    consumers’ food purchase decisions and the assumption of rational decision
    making has long since been abandoned. The 3D product matrix evidently
    represents a simplification of a complex set of considerations. However,
    it offers a parsimonious approach to classifying products from an ethical
    perspective that may be used during the new product development process
    and in the review of existing products.
    Some examples
    The 3D matrix may be used to consider both product categories and individual
    products or brands. For example, cigarettes may be classified as unnecessary
    as a product category for people in general, albeit people who have become
    addicted to smoking may view them as essential. Looking within a product
    category, for example magazines, National Geographic magazine could be
    considered enriching in furthering understanding about social, cultural and
    environmental topics, whereas magazines about celebrity gossip/lifestyles
    could be deemed unnecessary voyeurism into the lives of well-known
    personalities. This paper is not arguing that all superfluous products should be
    eliminated; life would be rather dull if stripped of all frivolity. Rather it argues
    that, in an era of concern about global consumption, precious resources
    might be better allocated elsewhere and that the impact of such products on
    long-run social and environmental welfare should be minimised.
    The following examples illustrate how the 3D product matrix may be
    133
    The Marketing Review, 2009, Vol. 9, No. 2
    used to analyse product categories and individual products. For contrast,
    two types of products (jewellery and flat screen monitors) and two services
    (car washes and botox cosmetic treatments) are considered.
    Jewellery
    The growing importance of ethics is evident in two current issues identified
    in a recent report on jewellery and watches (Key Note 2008). A range of
    ethically sourced jewellery collections have been introduced (for example by
    Ingle and Rhode, Oria and Sainsbury) and a number of retailers have signed
    up to the Catholic Agency for Overseas Development’s (CAFOD) ‘Golden
    Rules’ for the sale of jewellery. The Key Note report concluded:
    In anticipation of an economic downturn, it seems likely that the market for
    luxuries and non-essentials such as jewellery and watches will be adversely
    affected. The volume market seems most exposed, as consumers cut back
    on their spending and retailers respond with price cuts, although lighter-
    weight pieces or those containing less precious metal or gems may offer
    a compromise. At the other end of the market, consumers may be more
    likely to revert to the traditional tendency of regarding jewellery as an
    investment buy.
    (Key Note 2008, Executive Summary)
    Looking at the 3D matrix, jewellery could be considered to provide “high
    immediate satisfaction”, assuming it appeals to recipients’ aesthetic tastes.
    The introduction of ethically sourced jewellery collections and ethical
    guidelines suggests that the bulk of jewellery products, particularly those
    incorporating gold and precious stones, may be deemed to involve “low
    social and environmental welfare”. On the needs/wants continuum, jewellery
    could be judged to be “unnecessary”; indeed in the Key Note report quoted
    above this product category was classified as “non-essential”. In general
    then, jewellery as a product category could be placed in the lower, far right
    hand cell in Figure 2. However, this assessment fails to acknowledge that for
    many people jewellery may be regarded as enriching, through, for example,
    the pleasure derived from decorative objects or the emotional attachment
    to symbolic gifts or family heirlooms. For example, de Beers has attempted
    to highlight the symbolic value of diamonds in its past advertisements,
    portraying them as the ultimate demonstration of love. The enjoyment
    of beautiful objects could be regarded as a form of art appreciation and
    therefore life enriching. However, a virtue ethics perspective would advocate
    moderation and the avoidance of excess. Figure 2 suggests that it would be
    possible to locate individual jewellery collections that are ethically sourced in
    a “desirable” cell, if they can demonstrate “high social and environmental
    welfare” and if jewellery’s enriching capacity were accepted.
    Flat screen LCD monitors
    Flat screen LCD (liquid crystal display) monitors are reported to be a more
    environmentally friendly option than conventional CRT (cathode ray tube)
    monitors (Brown and Rayner 2005). They also provide better resolution,
    do not emit low level electromagnetic radiation and do not flicker, which
    134
    Harris Product classification: an ethical perspective
    may cause less eye strain (Brown and Rayner 2005). Although flat screen
    monitors cost more, over the long-term they are more economical because
    they use less energy and last longer (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,
    2008). Flat screen monitors also use less energy in their production, contain
    fewer non-renewable materials and ozone-depleting chemicals and so are
    less hazardous to dispose of (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 2008).
    However, like most computer parts, both types of monitor may be produced
    under poor working conditions (Brown and Rayner 2005).
    In terms of the 3D product matrix flat screen monitors could be considered
    to provide high immediate satisfaction and higher social and environmental
    welfare (from the user’s perspective) compared with conventional CRT
    monitors, albeit clearly there is scope for improving the social welfare of
    production workers. As noted earlier, although Figure 2 shows the matrix as
    discrete cells, in reality each of the dimensions better resembles a continuum.
    The location of flat screen monitors on the needs/wants dimension rather
    depends on the purpose for which it is used. If it is used for business or
    professional reasons, it is likely to be considered essential (to meet the need
    for a level of security provided through employment). If for leisure, it may be
    enriching. Its high cost is likely to mean that its purchase is less likely to be
    unnecessary, unless there is redundancy in access.
    Car washes
    Keeping cars clean may be considered an essential need, both to protect
    the condition of a car and for safety and legal reasons to ensure lights and
    registration plates are visible. Automated car washes and hand car washes
    that use high pressure hoses, while providing immediate satisfaction, could
    be classified as low on the social and environmental welfare dimension, owing
    to the large volumes of water used (although some may recycle the water)
    and possibly harmful cleaning chemicals involved. Such car washes would
    thus be located in the nearest bottom cell in Figure 2. The old fashioned
    alternative of home cleaning using a bucket and sponge and less water is
    less likely to appeal to many car owners, because it offers low immediate
    satisfaction owing to the time, effort and discomfort involved.
    Car cleaning systems could be moved up into a desirable cell in the
    matrix by reducing their impact on the environment. Innovative alternatives
    are appearing that claim to provide more environmentally friendly means of
    cleaning cars by using water-free, non-toxic cleaning chemicals.
    Botox
    The use of Botox injections, derived from the botulinum toxin A (BBC 2003),
    to reduce facial wrinkles by paralysing muscles temporarily, appears to be
    gaining acceptance as a mainstream cosmetic treatment no longer limited
    to those in the public eye. The controversy surrounding these procedures
    makes them an interesting example for analysis using the 3D matrix. The
    wrinkle reduction effects of Botox take about a week to work and last three
    to four months (Cooke 2006). However, Botox is reported to restrict facial
    expressions and potentially create wrinkles elsewhere (BBC 2003). Repeated
    treatments are required to maintain the enhancing effects, making it a costly
    and ongoing expense for those who embark on it. From an environmental
    135
    The Marketing Review, 2009, Vol. 9, No. 2
    perspective, the testing of Botox on mice raises animal welfare issues.
    In terms of the 3D matrix, Botox could be considered to provide fast (if not
    immediate) satisfaction, albeit temporary, but low social and environmental
    welfare. As a cosmetic treatment, Botox could be categorised as wholly
    unnecessary, but it seems an increasing number of people might argue that
    it is enriching to their self esteem or perhaps even essential in professions
    that place a high value on youthfulness. Only time and further research
    will reveal whether Botox can move into a desirable cell in the matrix. The
    alternative would be to change society’s attitudes towards aging so that
    such cosmetic treatments become universally considered unnecessary. This,
    however, is likely to prove challenging to achieve.
    Conclusions and marketing implications
    It is over thirty years since Kotler devised his product matrix and even longer
    since many of the other product typologies were developed. This paper has
    presented a long overdue update for analysing the nature of products. The
    addition of the needs/wants dimension enables marketers to consider the
    ethical implications of a product with respect to whether it can be justified,
    rather than just whether it can be marketed. The responsibility for the use
    of the Earth’s resources is shared between the organisations who produce,
    market or retail products and the consumers who purchase them. All parties
    therefore have a role to play in ensuring resources are used responsibly.
    Financial pressures also make it imperative that products address consumers’
    genuine needs rather than merely their wants.
    The 3D matrix provides a tool that can be used at the product development
    stage to evaluate the value of a product concept from a broader perspective
    that includes ethical consideration. Ideally such concerns should be addressed
    at the outset during new product development. However, organisations
    and marketers could also use the matrix to examine whether their existing
    products may be at risk of criticism in an age of heightened ethical scrutiny.
    If justification for a product is weak, the matrix could be used to help identify
    directions in which a product might be developed to make it more desirable
    and defensible from an ethical standpoint.
    The matrix could also be employed in competitor analysis by benchmarking
    a product’s position in the matrix against its key competitors. Such analysis
    might assist in uncovering aspects that could be used to differentiate a
    product and drawn on as the basis of any marketing activities.
    Adopting a more proactive approach by considering the ethical
    perspective in analysing a product could therefore be argued to have a range
    of potential business benefits in attempting to ensure the long-term survival
    of a new or existing product. The 3D matrix offers a practical tool that could
    be used to create more desirable products. Further research might include
    testing the matrix on a wider range of products and exploring how it might
    be incorporated in new product development processes.
    136
    Harris Product classification: an ethical perspective
    Acknowledgement
    The author would like to thank Prof. Sally Dibb for her helpful comments on
    drafts of this paper.
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    About the author and correspondence
    Fiona Harris BSc (Hons), MSc, PhD, is a Lecturer in Management at the
    Open University Business School. Her current research interests include
    social marketing and marketing ethics. She is working with colleagues in the
    Institute for Social Marketing on research into tobacco control, a European
    anti-smoking campaign and the impact of alcohol marketing on adolescent
    drinking. With a background in applied psychology Fiona has undertaken
    a range of applied research. Prior to joining The Open University in 1997,
    Fiona held research posts at Loughborough University, the Defence Research
    Agency and Xerox Research Centre Europe, conducting research into
    advanced in-vehicle systems, a range of future aircraft cockpit displays and
    human-computer interaction.
    Dr. Fiona Harris, Open University Business School, The Open University,
    Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, U.K.
    T +44 (0)1908 655888
    138
     

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