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personnel management HR 代寫

      Human resource management (HRM) is concerned with what happens within an organisation, more specifically how employment relationships are carried out. Industrial relations (IR) are concerned with the laws and regulations encompassing employment relationships. There are not many similarities between HRM and IR, but there are obvious differences between the two. HRM holds aunitarist perspective and is concerned with how the employment relationship is carried out; whereas IR holds a pluralist perspectiveand is concerned with how employment relationships are regulated. The Employment Relations Act 2000 has established the legal framework for how employment relationships should be managed. There is significant supporting legislation that covers a range of employment matters, such as the Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992. The Employment Relations Act along with the supporting legislation set up the current industrial/employment relations system in New Zealand. Some upcoming changes include the minimum wage being increased and a starting-out wage being introduced. The industrial/employment relations system impacts on HRM in New Zealand organisations.
     
    The central concerns of HRM are the management of employment relationships and practices within a workplace. HRM can be related to many processes and policies that exist within organisations. Some of these include recruiting and selecting staff, health and safety within the workplace, training, performance evaluations,and administrating pay systems (Bryson & Ryan, 2012). HRM can be seen as the use of practices which are “associated with the management of the employment relationship and the functioning of workplaces” (Bryson & Ryan, 2012, p. 5). It is focused on what happens within an organisation and this includes the processes which are carried out to manage employment agreements. HRM can be split into soft HRM approaches and hard HRM approaches. Soft HRM sees people as humans with needs that should be met by the organisation. There is long-term focus on building loyalty and commitment between employees and the employer. On the contrary, hard HRM approaches view people as just another resource which are at the disposal of the organisation, which must be managed as efficiently as possible to achieve the organisational goals. HRM looks at how employment relationships are carried out, and on the whole IR is also concerned with employment relationships.
     
    IR is centrally concerned with how laws and regulations influence and ultimately control employment relationships. Employees, employers, trade unions, and the government are the main participants, as IR includes third parties such as trade unions in the employment relationship. IR examines relationships, processes and institutionswhich consequently create a network (Lamm & Rasmussen, 2004). IR can look at how organisations employ people, what employment contract they should use, whether it’s an individual or collective employment contract and also how to terminate an employment agreement. IR focuses on issues of power and conflict in the workplace, along with the management of the employment relationship (Lamm & Rasmussen, 2004). It recognises that a power imbalance may exist between the employee and the employer or management staff, and looks at how power imbalances can be resolved. There are laws which regulate workplaces, and initiate processes and institutions to balance the power in the workplace and make sure workers are not exploited. IR has traditionally emphasised social justice issues, which creates the need for employment legislation and trade unions to “protect workers from unfair treatment or harm and promote decent work” (Bryson & Ryan, 2012, p.5). Essentially, IR is about regulating employment relationships in workplaces.
     
    HRM and IR are not very similar. The only similarity that emerges is that both HRM and IR are largely about employment relationships. HRM and IR both have varying central concerns, and from this we are able to identify numerous differences between the two areas. A main difference is that HRM generally holds a more unitarist perspective and IR is often portrayed as pluralist. The unitarist view of HRM means that everybody in the organisation is working towards a common goal and has common objectives. They all hold mutual interests and have an individualised focus. It is seen that there are no power issues, so no legislation is needed and no third party should be involved. The pluralist view of IR means that different interests exist and therefore there is competition and competing interests within the organisation. HRM is internally focused, while IR is more external. This is because IR includes other outside forces such as legislation and it acknowledges the need for third parties like trade unions and the government. Overall, HRM is associated with the practices for managing employees and the employment relationship between the employer and worker to achieve organisational goals (Bryson & Ryan, 2012); whereas IR looks at laws and regulations that surround employment relationships. Therefore, there is quite a significant difference between HRM and IR.They may have varying central concerns and other differences, but HRM and IR are affected by the New Zealand industrial/employment relations system.
     
    HRM and IR are widely influenced by the industrial/employment relations system. The current industrial/employment relations system in New Zealand consists of three main parts. The first part is the participants, including employers or managers, employees, and the government. Another aspect is institutions and processes which are set up by law. Some of these include trade unions, the Employment Authority and the Employment court, and the processes of mediation and collective bargaining. Lastly, are the rules which exist as laws and workplace practices (Lamm & Rasmussen, 2004).The Employment Relations Act creates the legal basis for employment relationships in New Zealand; the act outlines how employment relationships should be managed. The object of the Employment Relations Act is to “build productive employment relationships through the promotion of good faith in all aspects of the employment environment and of the employment relationship” (Parliamentary Counsel Office, n.d.). A central principle outlined in the act is that of good faith, which should influence the relationship between an employee and employer. Good faith applies to all parties in an employment agreement, and means dealing fairly, openly and honestly with each other, and mutual respect between all parties should exist. The Employment Relations Act recognisestrade unions and establishes processes and institutions for settling disputes, including the Employment Relations Authority. It also sets out the processes for collective and individual agreement negotiations and acknowledges that overall “employment relationships must be built on good faith behaviour” (Bryson & Ryan, 2012, p.72). The Employment Relations Act provides the foundation for New Zealand’s employment laws, and then other employment legislation covering a range of matters acts as a support system.
     
    There are various laws covering a wide range of employment issues that support the Employment Relations Act in the industrial/employment relations system. Some of these comprise of the Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992, Human Rights Act 1993 and the Minimum Wage Act 1983 (Bryson & Ryan, 2012). The Health and Safety in Employment Act is essential employment legislation. The aim of the Act is to “prevent harm to employees while they are at work and promote excellence in the systematic management of health and safety” (Lamm & Rasmussen, 2004, p.132). It sets out the general duties for employees and employers and identifies regulations and workplace practices that must be followed. There is at least 10 other legislative provisions which impact on employment and HRM and the workplace. Some upcoming changes to the industrial/employment relations system is the increase of the minimum wage. The minimum wage for all employees aged 16 years and older will increase from $13.50 to $13.75 from 1 April 2013. The training and new entrants’ minimum wage will also increase from the current $10.80 to $11.00 (Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment, n.d.). Another change that is going to take place is the introduction of a starting-out wage. The aim of the Minimum Wage (Starting-out Wage) Amendment Bill is to give employers incentives to take on young employees. From 1 May 2013, eligible 16-19 year olds can receive 80 per cent of the minimum wage for six months or for as long as they are doing training in the industry (Bridges, 2013). There are many possible upcoming changes to the industrial/employment relations system in New Zealand, and this will affect HRM in workplaces.
     
    Ultimately, what does the industrial/employment relations system mean for HRM in the workplace?  Employment legislation establishes basic minimum rights and enforceable standards for employees, which covers working conditions, privacy and discrimination. The industrial/employment relations system alsobenefits employers by enhancing management practices and complementing national and international workplace standards (Lamm & Rasmussen, 2004). The current industrial/employment relations system affects HRM practice as it sets the rules for how people enter employment agreements, how they are managed, and what processes to follow when things go wrong. It also specifies how people should be treated in the workplace. It is important because employers or management staff need to be aware of the current legislation that the industrial/employment relations system is comprised of so they can follow the correct procedures when dealing with HRM in their organisations.
     
    HRM and IR only have one similarity; they are both focused on employment relationships. There are numerous differences between the two areas, the key one being what they are centrally concerned about. The focal concern of HRM is the employment relationship and functioning within an organisation. IR focuses on the laws and regulations encompassing employment relationships. The Employment Relations Act, which establishes the legislative foundation for employment relationships, and supporting legislation together form the industrial/employment relations system. The increasing minimum wage and introduction of a starting-out wage are impending changes to the industrial/employment relations system in New Zealand. The industrial/employment relations system has a profound influence HRM in workplaces, affecting organisational practices.

     
    References:
    Bridges, S. (2013). Minimum wage to increase. Retrieved from
    Bridges, S. (2013). Starting-out wage available from 1 May. Retrieved from
    Bryson, J. & Ryan, R. (2012).Human Resource Management in the Workplace. Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson.
    Lamm, F. &Rasumussen, R. (2004).Managing Human Resources: Contemporary Perspectives in New Zealand. Auckland, New Zealand: McGraw Hill.
    Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment.(n.d.).The Minimum Wage. Retrieved from
    Parliamentary Counsel Office.(n.d.).New Zealand Legislation: Employment Relations Act 2000. Retrieved from
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

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